Join our Law Notes WhatsApp Group and stay updated with Legal and Judicial Updates
Section 17 of Indian Contract Act, 1872
From the Act
"Fraud" means and includes any of the following acts committed by a party to a contract, or with his connivance, or by his agent, with intent to deceive another party thereto of his agent, or to induce him to enter into the contract:-
- (1) the suggestion, as a fact, of that which is not true, by one who does not believe it to be true ;
- (2) the active concealment of a fact by one having knowledge or belief of the fact ;
- (3) a promise made without any intention of performing it
- (4) any other act fitted to deceive ;
- (5) any such act or omission as the law specially declares to be fraudulent.
Mere silence as to facts likely to affect the willingness of a person to enter into a contract is not fraud, unless the circumstances of the case are such that, regard being had to them, it is the duty of the person keeping silence to speak,1* or unless his silence is, in itself, equivalent to speech.
- (a) A sells, by auction, to B, a horse which A knows to be unsound. A says nothing to B about the horse's unsoundness. This is not fraud in A.
- (b) B is A's daughter and has just come of age. Here, the relation between the parties would make it A's duty to tell B if the horse,is unsound.
- (c) B says to A--"If you do not deny it, I shall assume that the horse is sound." A says nothing. Here, A's silence is equivalent to speech.
- (d) A and B, being traders, enter upon a contract. A has private information of a change in prices which would affect B's willingness to proceed with the contract. A is not bound to inform B.
Related Sections from the Act
- Section 14 - Says a Contract is voidable if one of the parties in the contract is induced by coercion, fraud misinterpretation, or a mistake.
- Section 238 - Effect, on agreement, of misrepresentation or fraud by agent