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Organized Crimes

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One of the major type of study by Criminologists is Organized Crime. It is defined is an act which is committed by two or more criminals as a joint venture in an organized manner.

It is often by in a hierarchical system with a boss, his lieutenants and operators for a specific period. The organization resemble an economic enterprise to carry on illegal activities. The illegal money earned is shared with the members with the manager or organizer taking a substantial share.

Prostitution, Smuggling, Bottlegging, Gambling, Racketeering are some forms of organized criminal activities.

Types of organized crime

  • Organized predatory crime
  • Crime syndicate
  • Criminal racket
  • Political graft

Organized predatory crime

In this crime, the benefit is enjoyed completely by the gangster with no service or benefit to the victim. In this system, juvenile delinquents and occasional offenders turn into professional gangsters over time.

Because the victim of the crime gets nothing, the society generally reacts sharply at this.

Professional criminal gangs require experience and careful planning than occasional criminals. This includes prior selection of "spots" as well as preparing escape from punishment in case of detection.

Examples of these crimes are theft, decoity, extortion, kidnapping, pick-pocketing etc. Terrorism is a larger form of an organized predatory crime.

Crime Syndicate

Crime Syndicates refers to a criminal gang which offers an illegal or forbidden service to the desirous customers who are ready to pay handsomely. These operate because there is a market for the illegal / prohibited goods / services. Unlike Organized predatory crime, the victim gets some good / service for which he paid.

These crime syndicates are master minded by skilled and professional mastermind. Further, they are protected by political organizations who have respectable businessmen and lawyers giving money necessary to 'buy' or 'fix' law enforcing persons and shield in case of a problem.

Examples: Gambling, Commercial prostitution, bootlegging, supply of narcotic drugs and intoxicants.

Criminal Racket

Also called Racketeering, it is a systematic extortion under some kind of threat usually of personal injury or property. It is an illegal exploitation from some legitimate or illegitimate demand.

Criminal Rackets differs from Organized predatory crime in the sense that there is some service involved in it and not completely predatory.

Criminal Rackets differs from Criminal syndicates in the sense that the service is rendered to people who are normally engaged in legitimate businesses while in the syndicate the activity is totally illegitimate and prohibited.

Examples: Business rackets in which fictitious names are put on labor rolls and huge sums are drawn in their names and the expenses are shown on record. Gambling rackets lure people to put in more and more of their money in horse races or game of chance and luck and then dupe them. Cyber casinos and internet gambling have become modern forms of this crime.

Political Graft

Political graft is the usage of notorious offenders by politicians so that they can come into power or get some benefit for their political party such as getting victory in polls etc. These offenders use both legitimate and illegitimate methods (such as violence and threats) to get their master win.

Examples range from the common method such as 'buying votes' by paying the voter to advanced methods of setting up inquiry commission against a big politician to save him than to really inquire him.

See Also