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Open Jail, Open Air Camps or Parole Camps, the concept of Open prison is new and evolving. It was made possible after the United Nations Congress on Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders held in Geneva in 1955. These are minimum security open air jails for rehabilitating inmates in society before their final release.
Although there was risk of prisoners escaping, reality showed that the actual escapes are very low. Because of reduced guard and surveillance and because they are open air camps, there was less economic burden in running a typical jail.
History of Open Prison
The first semi-open jail called Witzwill establishment was setup in Switzerland. Open jails in the true modern sense came up in UK in the 1930s and to US in 1940s. Sir Alexander Palerson, member secretary of Prison Commission of UK from 1922 to 1927 made significant contributions to the concept. The success of this in UK has lead to the establishment of a 'hostel system for prisoners'.
Open Prisons in USA
These are called 'Prison Farms'. Prisoners at the end of their sentence are transferred to a forest camp where they are made to work as laborers.
California opened a number of open jails in 1915 but starting 1935, the Californian legislation suggested several prison reforms. ...
Open Air Camps in India
The first of the camps are established by Dr Sampurnanand Camps, Home Minister of Uttar Pradesh at an open air camp site in Chakiya in Chandauli District.
Open Prisons in other countries
Countries like Netherlands, France, Norway and Sweden, Hungary, Belgium, Australia, Thailand and Middle-East have experimented with Open prisons.
- Penology - Study of punishment in relation to crime and the management of prisons