International Conventions

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According to Article 38(1)(a) of the International Court of Justice, 'international conventions, whether general or particular, establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting state'. The International Conventions are treated to be directly the source of International Law. According to Pacta sunt servanda (an agreement must survive), every signatory state who signed a convention or a treaty is bound to oblige the terms and conditions of that convention, treaty or agreement. The treaties should not be in violation to the general principles, should not contradict the existing international law and should receive the support the maximum number of nations, failing which it cannot become a source of International Law.

Examples of International Conventions

  1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948
  2. Geneva Conventions, 1949
  3. Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982
  4. Antarctic Treaty, 1959
  5. Geneva Convention on the territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, 1958
  6. Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, 1970
  7. Hague Convention, 1970
  8. Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961
  9. Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation
  10. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969
  11. European Convention on Human Rights
  12. Rome Statute, 1998, that lead to the establishment of the International Criminal Court

Types of Conventions

General Convention

A Convention which is signed and accepted by all or majority of the states is called a General Convention.

Example: Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982

Particular Convention

A treaty between two or more states established or seek to establish a relationship between them governed by international law.

Example: Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969