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Code of Evidence Act, 2006

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  • 1. Title and Commencement.
  • 2. Repeal and Saving.
  • 3. Authority and Application.


  • 4. Definitions.


  • 5. Proving and Disproving a Fact.
  • 6. Presumption of Fact.
  • 7. General Restriction on Admissibility of Evidence.
  • 8. Facts Forming Part of the same Event or Transaction.
  • 9. Facts Causing or Caused by other Facts.
  • 10. Facts Relating to Motive, Preparation and Conduct.
  • 11. Explanatory and Introductory Facts.
  • 12. Statements and Actions Referring to Common Intention.
  • 13. Facts Inconsistent with or Affecting Probability of other Facts.
  • 14. Facts Affecting Amount of Damages.
  • 15. Facts Affecting Existence of Right or Custom.
  • 16. Facts Showing State of Mind.
  • 17. Facts Showing System.
  • 18. Facts Showing Course of Business.



  • 19. Admissions Defined Generally.
  • 20. Statements by Party to a Suit, Agent or Interested Person.
  • 21. Statements by Persons whose Position or Liability must be Proved as against a Party to a Suit.
  • 22. Statements by Persons Expressly Referred to by Party to a Suit.
  • 23. Proof of Admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalf.
  • 24. Oral Admissions as to Contents of Documents.
  • 25. Admissions made without Prejudice in Civil Suits.
  • 26. Effect of Admissions.


  • 27. Confessions Defined.
  • 28. Confessions and Admissions Caused by Inducement, Threat or Promise.
  • 29. Confessions made after Removal of Impression Caused by Inducement, Threat or Promise.
  • 30. Confession of Accused while in Custody of Police Officer.
  • 31. Confessions to Police Officers.
  • 32. Confession otherwise Admissible not made Inadmissible due to Promise of Secrecy.
  • 33. Information from accused Leading to Discovery of Facts.
  • 34. Confession Implicating Co-accused.

Statements by Persons who Cannot be Called as Witnesses

35. Statement by Deceased Person. 36. Admissibility of Evidence given in Previous Proceedings.

Statements in Documents Produced in Civil Proceedings

=37. Admissibility of Documentary Evidence as to Facts in Issue. =38. Weight to be Attached to Statement Admissible under Section 37.

Statements under Special Circumstances

  • 39. Entries in Books of Account and Business Records.
  • 40. Entries in Public Records.
  • 41. Statements etc., in Maps, Charts and Plans.
  • 42. Statement of Fact Contained in Laws and Official Gazettes.
  • 43. Statements as to Law Contained in Books.

Extent to Which Statement is Admissible

  • 44. Extent of Admissibility.


  • 45. Judgments Addressing Jurisdiction.
  • 46. Judgments Concerning Property.
  • 47. Other Judgments.
  • 48. Inadmissible Judgments.
  • 49. Proof that the Court was Incompetent or Judgment was Obtained by Fraud or Collusion.
  • 50. Proof of Guilt.


  • 51. Opinions of Experts.
  • 52. Facts Bearing upon Opinions of Experts.
  • 53. Opinion as to Handwriting.
  • 54. Opinion Relating to Customs and Rights.
  • 55. Opinions of Persons with Special Knowledge.
  • 56. Opinion on Relationship.
  • 57. Grounds of Opinion.


  • Section 58. Character in Civil Suits.
  • Section 59. Good Character in Criminal Cases.
  • Section 60. Bad Character in Criminal Cases.
  • Section 61. Definition of “Character”.



Facts Requiring No Proof.

  • Section 62. Facts Judicially Noticed.
  • Section 63. Facts of which Court shall take Judicial Notice.
  • Section 64. Facts Admitted in Civil Proceedings.

Oral Evidence

  • Section 65. Oral Evidence.
  • Section 66. Oral Evidence must be Direct.

Documentary Evidence.

  • Section 67. Proof of Contents of Documents.
  • Section 68. Primary Evidence.
  • Section 69. Secondary Evidence.
  • Section 70. Proof of Documents by Primary Evidence.
  • Section 71. Proof of Documents by Secondary Evidence.
  • Section 72. Notice to Produce a Document.
  • Section 73. Proof of Allegation That a Person Signed or Wrote a Document.
  • Section 74. Proof of Execution of Document Required by Law to be Attested.
  • Section 75. Proof Where no Attesting Witness Found.
  • Section 76. Admission of Execution of Attested Document.
  • Section 77. Proof Where Attesting Witness Denies Execution.
  • Section 78. Proof of Document not Required to be Attested.
  • Section 79. Comparison of Signatures, Writings and Seals.
  • Section 80. Reports by Government Analysts and Geologists.
  • Section 81. Photographic Evidence Certificate.

Public Documents.

82. Distinction between Public and Private Documents. 83. Certified Copies of Public Documents. 84. Proof by Certified Copies. 85. Proof of Certain Public Documents.

Presumptions as to Documents.

86. Certified Documents. 88. Written Laws, Gazettes and Notices to be Prima Facie Evidence. 89. Gazettes, Newspapers, and Documents produced from Proper Custody. 90. Publications Generally. 91. Maps or Plans. 92. Laws and Judicial Reports. 93. Power of Attorney. 94. Certified Copies of Foreign Judicial Records. 95. Books, Maps and Charts. 96. Telegraphic, Electronic Mail and Fax Messages. 97. Presumption as to Due Execution. 98. Documents Twenty Years Old.

Exclusion of Oral Evidence by Documentary Evidence.

99. Written Contracts, Grants and Property Distributions. 100. Evidence of Oral Agreement. 101. Evidence to Explain a Patent Ambiguity. 102. Evidence to Show Inapplicability. 103. Evidence to Explain a Latent Ambiguity. 104. Evidence of Application to One of Several Subjects. 105. Evidence of Application to one of Several Sets of Facts. 106. Evidence to Explain Special Words. 107. Evidence of Variation given by Third Parties. 108. Wills.



Burden of Proof.

  • Section 109. Burden of Proof.
  • Section 110. Incidence of Burden.
  • Section 111. Proof of Particular Fact.
  • Section 112. Proof of Admissibility.
  • Section 113. Burden on Accused in Certain Cases.
  • Section 114. Proof of Special Knowledge in Civil Proceedings.
  • Section 115. Disproving Apparent Special Relationship.
  • Section 116. Disproving Ownership.
  • Section 117. Proof of Good Faith.
  • Section 118. Conclusive Proof of Legitimacy.
  • Section 119. Presumption of Death.
  • Section 120. Presumption of Likely Facts.


121. General Estoppel. 122. Estoppel of Tenant or Licensee. 123. Estoppel of Acceptor of an Act of Exchange. 124. Estoppel of Bailee, Licensee or Agent. CHAPTER VII PROVISIONS REGARDING WITNESSES Competency and Witnesses. 125. Competence of Witnesses. 126. Evidence of Children and Corroboration Required in Criminal Cases. 127. Mute Witnesses. 128. Competence of Parties and Spouses. Compellability. 129. Compellability of a Witness. Privilege of the Court and Witnesses. 130. Privilege of Court. 131. Communications during Marriage. 132. Privilege Relating to Official Records. 133. Privilege of Official Communications. 134. Privilege Relating to Information of Commission of Offences. 135. Advocate and Client Privilege. 136. Waiving of Privilege of Advocates. 137. Communications with an Advocate. 6 Act 2 Code of Evidence Act 2006 138. Privilege of Physician and Patient. 139. Title Deeds and Incriminating Documents in the Hands of a Third Party. 140. Privileged Document in Possession of Another. 141. Business Records. 142. Accomplices. 143. Privileges to Exclude Oral Evidence of Documents. 144. Number of Witnesses. Examination of Witnesses 145. Court to decide as to the Admissibility of Evidence. 146. Types of Examination of Witnesses. 147. Order and Direction of Examinations. 148. Person Called to Produce a Document. 149. Witness to Character. 150. Meaning of Leading Question. 151. Leading Questions in Examination-in-chief and Re-examination. 152. Leading Questions in Cross-examination. 153. Examination as to whether certain formal matters are contained in a written document. 154. Cross-examination as to Previous Written Statements. 155. Cross-examination as to Credibility. 156. Compulsion to Answer Questions as to Credibility. 157. Cross-examination of Accused Person. 158. Discretion of Court to Compel Witness to Answer Questions as to Credibility. 159. Necessity for Grounds before Attacking Character. 160. Indecent or Scandalous Questions. 161. Insulting or Annoying Questions. 162. Discretion to Allow Cross-examination of one’s own Witness. 163. Exclusion of Evidence which Contradicts a Witness. 164. Evidence to Impeach the Credibility of a Witness. 165. Circumstantial Questions to Confirm Evidence. 166. Proof of Consistency by Former Statements. 167. Evidence to Test Statement of Person not Available as Witness. 7 Act 2 Code of Evidence Act 2006 Refreshment of Memory 168. Refreshing Memory by Reference to Contemporaneous Writing. 169. Reference to Accurate Contemporaneous Record though facts themselves not Specifically Recalled. 170. Rights of Adverse Party as to Contemporaneous Writing. Production of Documents 171. Production of Documents of Doubtful Admissibility. 172. Document Produced in Answer to Notice to be given as Evidence if Required. 173. Consequence of Refusal to Produce Document in an Answer to a Notice. 174. Extended Powers of Court for Purpose of Obtaining Proper Evidence. Examination by Experts 175. Examination by Assessors. Improper Admission and Rejection of Evidence 176. Effect of Improper Admission or Rejection. CHAPTER VIII PROVISIONS RELATING TO BUSINESS RECORDS 177. Mode of Proof of Entries in Business Records 178. Proof and Verification of Copy. 179. Restriction on Compelling Production of Business Records. 180. Inspection of Business Records. 181. Warrant to Investigate. 182. Costs of Applications.


See Also