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Civil Servant

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Who is a Civil Servant

A civil servant or public servant is a person so employed in the public sector employed for a government department or agency.

The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not.

In India, the Civil Service is defined as "appointive positions by the Government in connection with the affairs of the Union and includes a civilian in a Defence Service, except positions in the Indian Armed Forces." The members of civil service serve at the pleasure of the President of India and Article 311 of the constitution protects them from politically motivated or vindictive action.

Categories of Civil Servants

There are five categories of Civil Servants:

1. Administrators of the native states of India

2. Administrators of British India who came as servants of the East India Company before the formation of the ICS in 1853

3. Members of the former Indian Civil Service (ICS) as well as the superior central and nationalised services in British India, who joined the civil service after 1853.

4. Employees of the Central Civil Services of the present Government of India, and respective Indian state governments including the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, Indian Police Service etc.

5. Technocrats and Academic Administrators who have held official positions of the Government of India and the respective state governments of the Indian Union.

Constitutional Provisions

The Part XIV of the Constitution of India deals with the topic of Services under the Union and the States.

  • Article 309: Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State
  • Article 310: Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State
  • Article 311: Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State
  • Article 312: All-India services
  • Article 312A: Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services
  • Article 313: Transitional provisions