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Act (Legislation)

An Act is a written law. It is formally ordained or passed by the legislative power of a state, called in England an "act of parliament," and in the United States an "act of congress," or of the "legislature;" a statute.

  • People v. Tiphaine, 3 Parker, Cr.R. (N. Y.) 241; United States v. Smith, 27 Fed.Cas. 1167.

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Act (Event)

An Act is an event that can be controlled by a human will. Every 'Act' is made up of three distinct factors:

  • Origin in some mental or bodily activity or passivity of the doer
  • Its circumstances
  • Its consequences

Classification of Acts

  • Positive and Negative Acts
  • Voluntary and Involuntary Acts
  • Internal and External Acts
  • Intentional and Unintentional Acts

Related Cases / Recent Cases / Case Law

  • Ardeshir v Flaora Sassoon, AIR 1928 PC 208: "It will be useful, in the interpretation of the relevant sections, to have in mind what the English system on which the Act is based was in its origin and in its fullness at the date of codification."
  • Akshyalingam v Avayambala, AIR 1933 Mad 386; Kishorechand v Badaun ESC, AIR 1944 Al 66 (77), Namdeo v Narmadabai, AIR 1953 SC 2228; Muralilal v Devkaran, AIR 1965 C 225; Ganeshilal v Joti, AIR 1953 SC 1; Valliama v Sivathanu, AIR 1979 SC 1937 (paras 29, 31): Where the Act is silent or the Act does not apply, the English principles may be resorted to in so far as they are consonant within the principles of 'justice, equity and good conscience'.

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